Flashcard, memory games for learning

A flashcard or flash card is a card bearing information, as words or numbers, on either or both sides, used in classroom drills or in private study. One writes a question on a side and an answer overleaf. Flashcards can bear vocabulary, historical dates, formulae or any subject matter that can be learned via a question-and-answer format. Flashcards are widely used as a learning drill to aid memorization. They are often associated with spaced repetition, i.e. reviewed at expanding time intervals.

Flashcards can be virtual, as those used by flashcard software or online (SuperMemo, Anki, CRAM), or physical.

Flashcards are an application of the testing effect − the finding that long-term memory is increased when some of the learning period is devoted to retrieving the information through testing with proper feedback.

Flashcards exercise the mental process of active recall: given a prompt (the question), one produces the answer. Beyond the content of cards, which are collected in decks, there is the question of use – how does one use the cards, in particular, how frequently does one review (more finely, how does one schedule review) and how does one react to errors, either complete failures to recall or mistakes? Various systems have been developed, mostly based around spaced repetition – increasing the time intervals between reviews whenever a card is recalled correctly.

Physical flashcards are two-sided; in some context one wishes to correctly produce the opposite side on being presented with either side, such as in foreign language vocabulary; in other context, one is content to go in only one direction, such as in producing a poem given its title or incipit (opening). For physical flashcards, one may either use a single card, flipping it according to the direction, or two parallel decks, such as one English-Japanese and one Japanese-English. They have a number of uses that can be very simple or very elaborate for the person to memorize.

There are various systems for using flashcards, many based around the principle of spaced repetition – reviewing information at increasing intervals.

You can create your oww online flash cards on for example CRAM (http://www.cram.com/) or on http://arflashcards.com/

(Source: Wikipedia)

Example of Flash Cards
Example of Flash Cards (http://arflashcards.com/)


Flashcard, geheugen spelend trainen

Een flashcard of flash-kaart is een kaart met informatie, bijvoorbeeld woorden, afbeeldingen of cijfers, aan een of beide zijden, gebruikt in oefeningen in de klas. Men schrijft een vraag op de ene zijde en het antwoord op de keerzijde. Flashcards kunnen woordenschat, historische datums, formules of andere onderwerpen bevatten die met behulp van vraag-en-antwoord kunnen worden aangeleerd. Flashcards worden veel gebruikt als een geheugenoefening. Ze worden vaak geassocieerd met uitgestelde herhalingen, soms met verlengde tijdsintervallen.

Flashcards kunnen virtueel zijn, zoals in flash kaart software of online (SuperMemo, Anki, CRAM) of fysiek.

Flashcards zijn een toepassing van het testeffect - de bevinding dat langdurig geheugen wordt verhoogd wanneer een deel van de leerperiode is gewijd aan het ophalen van de informatie door middel van testen met de juiste feedback.

Flashcards oefenen het mentale proces van het actieve geheugen: als een vraag wordt gegeven, produceert men het antwoord. Afgezien van de inhoud van kaarten die in een kaartdek wordt verzameld, is er de kwestie van gebruik - hoe gebruikt u de kaarten, in het bijzonder, hoe vaak wordt een beoordeling gegeven (hoe gedetailleerd, hoe wordt er ge-evalueerd) en hoe reageert u op fouten? Verschillende systemen werden ontwikkeld, meestal gebaseerd op uitgestelde herhaling.

Fysieke flashcards zijn tweezijdig: men dient correct de tegenovergestelde kant te kunnen aangeven wanneer men met een van beide kanten wordt gepresenteerd. Een voorbleed is een vocabulaire in een vreemde taal.

Er zijn verschillende systemen voor het gebruik van flashcards, waarvan vele gebaseerd zijn op het principe van gespatieerde herhaling - het beoordelen van informatie met toenemende tussenpozen.

Maak je eigen online flash cards op bijvoorbeeld CRAM (http://www.cram.com/) of http://arflashcards.com/

(Bron: Wikipedia)


Le flashcard sono la rappresentazione, cartacea o elettronica, di un set di informazioni. In genere, ognuna di questa carte conserva la rappresentazione dell'informazione sul dorso e dall'altra la sua descrizione. Questa loro caratteristica consente un loro impiego pratico ed efficiente per la memorizzazione dell'informazione alla quale corrispondono. Mediante un esercizio di stimolazione attiva della memoria, possono infatti consentire l'apprendimento del dato rappresentato.

Data una domanda (posta sul dorso della carta), allo studente è richiesto di produrre una risposta, che verrà poi confrontata con quella registrata (sul retro della carta).

L'utilità delle flashcard si può apprezzare particolarmente in ambito informatico per diversi motivi. Intanto la creazione dei deck è resa più semplice dalla possibilità di importare in maniera automatica basi di dati già esistenti, mentre la fruizione è facilitata dall'utilizzo delle interfacce software. Soprattutto, è possibile sfruttare gli algoritmi di ripetizione spaziata che personalizzano la revisione delle carte in base al riscontro sulla difficoltà di assimilazione che lo studente mostra nella fase di studio o di ripetizione. In pratica, monitorando il livello di difficoltà attribuito dallo studente alle informazioni presenti nelle carte e ai suoi errori in fase di ripetizione, è possibile concentrare maggiormente lo studio sulle categorie di studio che presentano più difficoltà.

Esistono ottimi esempi di software per l'utilizzo della tecnica delle flashcard elettroniche o virtuale (SuperMemo, Anki, CRAM), alcuni dei quali molto versatili e dall'ottima interfaccia, che sfruttano l'algoritmo di ripetizione spaziata per focalizzare lo studio sugli argomenti di maggiore difficoltà oggettiva.

Online flash cards: CRAM (http://www.cram.com/) o http://arflashcards.com/

(Source: Wikipedia)

  • Practise
  • Recording / collecting
Learning activities
  • Hook (get attention, build interest, break the ice, catch the eye)
  • Classroom
  • At home
  • English
  • Dutch
  • Italian
Age 4 years
  • memory game
  • geheugen
  • flash card
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